A little history

A little history

1870

1870: THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR AND THE ANNEXATION OF ALSACE AND MOSELLE TO THE REICH

De 1870 à 1914

  THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR THE ANNEXATION OF ALSACE AND MOSELLE TO THE REICH In 1870 On 19 July 1970, Napoleon III declared war on Prussia. Very quickly, the French armies were defeated: in Alsace, first at Wissembourg and Frœschwiller and later at Strasbourg, and in Moselle at Gravelotte, Mars la..Read More

1914

FROM 1914 TO 1918: THE GREAT WAR

La 1ère Guerre Mondiale

  The great war From 1914 to 1918 On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France. As early as the 31st of July, the Reichland was submitted to a state of war: suppression of freedoms, forbidding of public meetings and press censorship. The next day, the order to mobilize..Read More

1919

1919-38 : THE TIME BETWEEN THE TWO WARS

1919-38 : THE TIME BETWEEN THE TWO WARS

  THE TIME BETWEEN THE TWO WARS From 1919 to 1938 The welcome given to the liberation troops and the legislative elections of 1919 were both perceived as a plebiscite in favour of France, but the enthusiasm quickly gave way to a certain “malaise.” Linguistic difficulties, triage commissions and, later,..Read More

1939

FROM 1939 TO 1940: EVACUATION – PHONY WAR AND COLLAPSE, MAY-JUNE 1940

FROM 1939 TO 1940: EVACUATION – PHONY WAR AND COLLAPSE, MAY-JUNE 1940

  EVACUATION, PHONY WAR AND COLLAPSE, MAY-JUNE 1940 From 1939 to 1940 On 1st September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. France mobilized its troops right away. The Alsace and Moselle border zone’s complete evacuation was ordered, spread over an area of about 10 kilometres deep. More than 600,000 residents of Alsace..Read More

1940

1940 – GERMANIZATION AND NAZIFICATION OF ALSACE-MOSELLE

Germanisation et nazification

  Germanisation and nazification Of Alsace-Moselle In 1940 Nowhere in the clauses of the armistice agreement was the fate of Alsace and Moselle detailed. Even so, the Germans occupied without delay the three départements of Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin and Moselle, and as early as July 1940, the Frankfurt border was re-established...Read More

1940 – 1944 : Repression and the camps in Alsace-Moselle

Les camps de concentration

  Repression and the camps In Alsace-Moselle From 1940 to 1944 Beginning in 1940, German law and the code for penal procedure were introduced in Alsace-Moselle, and were coupled with the establishment of a system of repression: a Nazi re-training camp opened in Schirmeck on 2 August 1940 and one..Read More

1940 – The deportation of people from Alsace and Moselle

La déportation

  The deportation of people from Alsace and Moselle In 1940 The political opponents in Alsace and Moselle were deported. They were sent to all of the camps of the great Reich. We are able to cite the cases of 42 Alsatian officers deported to Neuengamme for having refused to..Read More

1940 : THE RESISTANCE OF PEOPLE FROM ALSACE MOSELLE LIVING OUTSIDE OF THE REGION

La diaspora

  THE RESISTANCE OF PEOPLE FROM ALSACE MOSELLE LIVING OUTSIDE OF THE REGION In 1940 The Diaspora from Alsace and Moselle made up an important basis for the French and foreign Resistance movements. Those who evacuated but didn’t return, those who were deported or had escaped, met up on every..Read More

1942

1942 : THE ESTABLISHMENT OF REQUIRED MILITARY SERVICE

1942 - Service militaire obligatoire

  The establishment of Required military service In 1942 After the April 1941 introduction of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD work service of the Reich, required military preparation for young girls and boys), the population witnessed the dreaded introduction of required military service. Put into place by the Nazis to encourage voluntary..Read More

1942 : Résistance, répression et ralliement

Résistance

Résistance, répression ralliement En 1942 Malgré une répression impitoyable, la population des deux territoires a manifesté son attachement à la France. On continue à parler français dans la rue, dans les magasins, au travail, on chante la Marseillaise ou l’Internationale, le drapeau tricolore est hissé clandestinement sur certaines mairies, on..Read More

1943

1943 : Absolute war in Alsace Moselle

Guerre Totale

  Absolute war In Alsace Moselle In 1943 The war took a turn when on 2 February 1943 Paulus capitulated in Stalingrad. The great Reich was thrown into “Total War” and Alsace and Moselle with it. In daily life, rationing became stricter, requisitions and searches in favour of the front..Read More

1945

END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR – EUROPE IS IN RUINS

Libération - 1945

  END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR EUROPE IS IN RUINS BEGINNING IN MARCH 1945… With her industries running in slow motion, her influence on the international stage was diminished. Distrust set in amongst the great world powers. The bloody, violent conflict of 1939-45 soon made way for a new..Read More

1945 – 1949 : Consolidate peace

La paix

  Consolidate peace From 1945 to 1949 Between 1945 and 1947, it was urgent to reconcile old wartime enemies and consolidate peace efforts. The creation of NATO in 1949 solidified the military cooperation between Americans and Europeans confronted with the massive presence of Soviet troops in the communist countries. Initiatives..Read More

1945 : Alsace-Moselle Contribution

Non à la ced

  ALSACE MOSELLE CONTRIBUTION In 1945 Alsace and Moselle had not only been occupied but annexed by the Third Reich and paid a heavy price during the war, with 130,000 young men forced to fight (called the “malgré nous”) in the German army, 30,000 of which died or went missing...Read More

1950

1950-1954 : No to a European Army

Non à la ced

  No to a European Army From 1950 to 1954 The 1950 invasion of South Korea by communist North Korean troops caused fear amongst the two great powers on the European soil. In order to resist the soviet threat, the United States asked their allies to prepare for the rearmament..Read More

1955

1950-1960 : BABY STEPS FOR EUROPE

L'Europe à petits pas de 1955 à 1960

BABY STEPS FOR EUROPE FROM 1955 TO 1960 After the failure of the EDC, the six Member States of the ECSC met at the Conference of Messine and affirmed, in June 1955, their “intention to move to a new level on the path towards European construction, and most importantly, in..Read More

1960

1960-1988 : The great interior market

1960-1988 : The great interior market

  The great interior market From 1960 to 1988 Two oil crises, in 1973 and 1979, undermined the European economies and resulted in unemployment, recession and de-industrialization. They revealed the rigidity of the structure and required the reform of the EEC. The election of the European Parliament through universal suffrage..Read More

1989

1989-1997 : The hopes of Eastern Europe

Espoirs de l'Europe de l'Est

  The hopes of Eastern Europe From 1989 to 1997 The fall of the Berlin Wall created much hope among the former-soviet countries, whose populations aspired to freedom, democracy and human rights, but it also revealed some concerns regarding the rebirth of a “Great Germany.” The Council of Europe, a..Read More

1998

1998-2009 : Single currency

Mise en place de la monnaie unique, l'Euro

  Single Currency From 1998 to 2009 The common currency was adopted in May 1998. The governments committed themselves to respecting the common rules intended to maintain monetary stability. Eleven countries met the requirements to join the Euro group. Euros entered into circulation through the ECB in Frankfurt on 1..Read More

2010

2010 : The challenges

2010 : The challenges

  Memorial Since2010… Since 2008, one major crisis has followed another: The public opinions’ growing defiance, The entanglement involving Greece’s debts, requiring the intervention of both the ECB and IMF; The “Arab Springs” and the War in Syria, which have led to a constant influx of refugees at the borders,..Read More