Since 2008, one major crisis has followed another:
- The public opinions’ growing defiance,
- The entanglement involving Greece’s debts, requiring the intervention of both the ECB and IMF;
- The “Arab Springs” and the War in Syria, which have led to a constant influx of refugees at the borders, leading certain countries to rebuild “walls;”
- The rupture of accord negotiations regarding Ukraine’s entry into the EU, followed by Crimea’s independence and its annexation to Russia;
- And Great Britain’s the 23 June 2016 referendum, in favor of Brexit.
Each time, the adaptation and action of the Union have been tested.
The future of European integration will depend on its ability to meet these challenges.