Since 2008, crisis came one after another :
- The growing mistrust of public opinion,
- The increase in Greece’s debts, requiring the intervention of both the ECB and IMF;
- The “Arab Springs” and the War in Syria, which had led to a constant influx of refugees at the borders, leading some countries to rebuild “walls;”
- The rupture of negotiation agreements regarding Ukraine’s entry into the EU, followed by Crimea’s independence and its annexation to Russia;
- And Great Britain’s referendum on the 23 June 2016 in favor of Brexit.
Each time, the adaptation and action of the Union had been tested.
The future of European integration will depend on its ability to meet these challenges.