A bit of history

A bit of history


1870: The Franco-prussian War and the annexation of Alsace and Moselle to the Reich

De 1870 à 1914

19 July 1870, Napoleon III declared war on Prussia. The French armies were quickly defeated. In Alsace the french army lost a few battles in  Wissembourg and Frœschwiller and later in Strasbourg. In Moselle at Gravelotte, Mars la Tour and Saint-Privat…The Maréchal Bazaine was surrounded in Metz. This has led..Read More


1914 – 1918 : The Great War

La 1ère Guerre Mondiale

On August 3, 1914, Germany declared war on France. Since July 31, the Reichsland was already under  a state of war: basics freedoms were suppressed, public meetings forbidden, press censored. The next day, the mobilization order was posted in all the cities. The military dictatorship was total, rationing was drastic,..Read More


1919-1938 : between the two Wars

1919-1938 : between the two Wars

The welcome given to the liberation troops and the legislative elections of 1919 were perceived as a plebiscite in favor of France. But the enthusiasm was soon followed by tensions. The linguistic difficulties, the sorting commissions and later the will of the French government to suppress the particularities (bilingualism, Concordat,..Read More


1939 – 1940: Evacuation – Phony war and collapse, May-June 1940

1939 – 1940: Evacuation – Phony war and collapse, May-June 1940

EVACUATION, PHONY WAR AND COLLAPSE, MAY-JUNE 1940 On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Immediately, France mobilized its troops.The total evacuation of the Alsace-Moselle border area over a distance of ten kilometres is ordered. More than 600,000 Alsatians and Mosellans are forced to leave, taking with them the bare minimum,..Read More


1940 : The resistance of people from Alsace Moselle living outside of the Region

La diaspora

The Alsatian and Moselle Diaspora constituted an important base for the French and foreign resistance.Evacuees who did not return, expellees and escapees from Alsace and Moselle were to be found on all fronts (in the maquis of the South-West, in Switzerland, in London or in Algiers…). 1940 : The deportation..Read More

1940 – The deportation of people from Alsace and Moselle

La déportation

The politically opposed Alsatians-Moselle were deported. They were found in all the camps of the Great Reich.We can mention the case of the 42 Alsatian officers deported to Neuengamme for having refused to swear an oath to Hitler and of which 22 died there, the Alsatian Moselle deportees to Struthof..Read More

1940 – 1944 : Repression and the camps in Alsace-Moselle

Les camps de concentration

Repression and the camps In Alsace-Moselle German law and the Code of Criminal Procedure were introduced in Alsace Moselle in 1940 and were accompanied by the establishment of the repressive system: a Nazi reform camp opened in Schirmeck on 2 August 1940 and a year later, the Germans set up..Read More

1940 – Germanization and Nazification of Alsace-Moselle

Germanisation et nazification

Germanisation and nazification Of Alsace-Moselle The Armistice Agreement does not specify in any of its clauses the fate to be reserved for Alsace and the Moselle. However, the Germans soon occupied the three departments of the Haut-Rhin, the Bas-Rhin and the Moselle, and in July 1940, the Frankfurt border was..Read More


1942 : Résistance, répression et ralliement


Resistance, repression rallying Despite a very harsh repression, the population of these two territories showed its attachment to France. People kept speaking French in the streets, in shops, at work. They sang the Marseillaise or the Internationale. The tricolour flag was covertly hoisted, people did graffiti on the walls, and..Read More

1942 : The Establishment of required military service

1942 - Service militaire obligatoire

The establishment of Required military service After the introduction of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD, work service of the Reich, for young girls and boys) in April 1941, the population went through the dreaded establishment of a compulsory military service. The vast propaganda campaign, implemented by the Nazis to encourage voluntary enlistment..Read More


1943 : Absolute war in Alsace Moselle

Guerre Totale

Absolute war In Alsace Moselle The turning point of the war was reached when Paulus surrendered at Stalingrad on 2 February 1943. The great Reich was then launched into the “Total War” and Alsace and the Moselle with it. In everyday life, rationing is becoming more severe, requisitions and searches..Read More


1945 – 1949 : Consolidate peace

La paix

Between 1945 and 1947, it was urgent to brought former war ennemies back together and consolidate peace efforts. The creation of NATO in 1949 strengthened the military cooperation between Americans and Europeans confronted with the massive presence of Soviet troops in the communist countries.Initiatives were taken in order to rebuild..Read More

End of the Second World War : Europe is in ruins

Libération - 1945

After Second World War, European industries were slowed down and its international power were reduced. There was a lack of confidence at an international level. The “Cold War” quickly followed the very violent conflict of 39-45. In 1946, Winston Chruchill evoked an “iron curtain” which had divided Europe in two..Read More

1945 : Alsace-Moselle Contribution

Non à la ced

Alsace and Moselle had not only been occupied but annexed by the Third Reich, therefore the war heavily affected them : 130,00 young men (called the “malgré-nous”) were forced to fight in the German army. 30,000 of them died or went missing. These martyred lands forged great Europeans, such as Robert..Read More


1950-1954 : No to a European Army

Non à la ced

In 1950, the invasion of South Korea by communists’troops from the North brought about the fear of a confrontation between the two blocs on the European soil. In order to resist the soviet threat, the United States asked their allies to prepare for the rearmament of West Germany. The Schuman..Read More

1955-1960 : Baby steps for Europe

L'Europe à petits pas de 1955 à 1960

After the failure of the EDC, the six Member States of the ECSC met at the Messina Conference and affirmed, in June 1955, their intention “to go a step further towards the conscrution of Europe […] first at all […] in the economic field”. France, the United Kingdom and Israel..Read More


1960-1988 : The great interior market

1960-1988 : The great interior market

Two oil crises, in 1973 and 1979, undermined the European economies and caused unemployment, recession and de-industrialization. They revealed the rigidity of the structure and required the reform of the EEC. The election of the European Parliament through universal suffrage in 1979 reinforced its control role.The Single Act was a..Read More


1989-1997 : The hopes of Eastern Europe

Espoirs de l'Europe de l'Est

The fall of the Berlin Wall stirred up hope among the former-soviet countries. There, the populations aspired to freedom, democracy and human rights. But the fall of Berlin Wall also revealed some concerns regarding the rebirth of a “Great Germany.” The Council of Europe, a sort of waiting room on..Read More


1998-2009 : Single currency

Mise en place de la monnaie unique, l'Euro

The common currency was adopted in May 1998. The governments committed to respecting the common rules intended to maintain monetary stability. Eleven countries fulfilled the requirements to join the Euro group.Euros entered into circulation through the ECB in Frankfurt on 1 January 2002. With initiatives such as Erasmus, which had..Read More


2010 : The challenges

2010 : The challenges

Since 2008, crisis came one after another :The growing mistrust of public opinion,The increase in Greece’s debts, requiring the intervention of both the ECB and IMF;The “Arab Springs” and the War in Syria, which had led to a constant influx of refugees at the borders, leading some countries to rebuild..Read More