END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
EUROPE IS IN RUINS
BEGINNING IN MARCH 1945...
After Second World War, European industries were slowed down and its international power were reduced. There was a lack of confidence at an international level. The “Cold War” quickly followed the very violent conflict of 39-45. In 1946, Winston Chruchill evoked an “iron curtain” which had divided Europe in two rivals blocks and had created two Germanies. In 1961, the ‘iron curtain” became reality with the construction of the Berlin Wall.
Two point off views stood out on the terms of the unification. The federalists defended the idea of a European government and the union of national sovereignties. The other group preferred a straightforward coalition between States. Inspired by the British, this mode of intergovernmental operation was established in 1949, with the creation in London of the first international parliamentary assembly in history: The Council of Europe. The European Court of Human Rights was also founded. Their permanent seat was set in Strasbourg, the city that symbolized reconciliation between France and Germany.
The federal project began to take shape with Robert Schuman’s declaration on 9 May 1950 that called for placing the coal and steel markets under a “joint high authority,” the European Coal and Steel Community. The signing of the Treaties of Rome followed in 1957, setting up the European Economic Community between six countries. A Parliamentary Assembly was established in Strasbourg, as well as the European Atomic Energy Community.