A bit of history

A bit of history

1870

1870: The Franco-prussian Wat and the annexation of Alsace and Moselle to the Reich

De 1870 à 1914

THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR THE ANNEXATION OF ALSACE AND MOSELLE TO THE REICH In 1870 On 19 July 1870, Napoleon III declared war on Prussia. Very quickly, the French armies were defeated: in Alsace, first at Wissembourg and Frœschwiller and later at Strasbourg, and in Moselle at Gravelotte, Mars la Tour..Read More

1914

From 1914 to 1918: The Great War

La 1ère Guerre Mondiale

The great war From 1914 to 1918 On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France. As soon as the 31st of July, the Reichland was submitted to a state of war: suppression of freedoms, ban on public meeting and press censorship. The next day, the orders for mobilisation were..Read More

1919

1919-38 : The time betwenn the two Wars

1919-38 : The time betwenn the two Wars

THE TIME BETWEEN THE TWO WARS From 1919 to 1938 The reception given to the liberation troops and the legislative elections of 1919 were both perceived as a plebiscite in favour of France, but the enthusiasm quickly gave way to a certain “malaise.”Linguistic difficulties, triage commissions and, later, the French..Read More

1939

From 1939 to 1940: Evacuation – Phony war and collapse, May-June 1940

From 1939 to 1940: Evacuation – Phony war and collapse, May-June 1940

EVACUATION, PHONY WAR AND COLLAPSE, MAY-JUNE 1940 From 1939 to 1940 On 1st September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. France mobilized its troops right away.The Alsace and Moselle border zone’s complete evacuation were ordered, spread over an area of about 10 kilometres deep. More than 600,000 residents of Alsace and Moselle..Read More

1940

1940 : The resistance of people from Alsace Moselle living outside of the Region

La diaspora

THE RESISTANCE OF PEOPLE FROM ALSACE MOSELLE LIVING OUTSIDE OF THE REGION In 1940 The Diaspora of Alsace and Moselle was an important breeding ground for the French and foreign Resistance movements.Those who were evacuated but didn’t return, those who were deported or had escaped, were on every front (in..Read More

1940 – The deportation of people from Alsace and Moselle

La déportation

The deportation of people from Alsace and Moselle In 1940 The political opponents in Alsace and Moselle were deported. They were sent to different camps of the great Reich.For exemple, 42 Alsatian officers were deported to Neuengamme because they refused to swear allegiance to Hitler. Twenty-two of them died there...Read More

1940 – 1944 : Repression and the camps in Alsace-Moselle

Les camps de concentration

Repression and the camps In Alsace-Moselle From 1940 to 1944 In 1940, German law and penal procedure code were introduced in Alsace-Moselle, as the same time as the establishment of a system of repression: a Nazi re-education camp opened in Schirmeck on 2 August 1940 and one year later, the..Read More

1940 – Germanization and Nazification of Alsace-Moselle

Germanisation et nazification

Germanisation and nazification Of Alsace-Moselle In 1940 The situation of Alsace and Moselle was never mentioned in the clauses of the armistice of 1940. Despite this, the Fermans occupied right away the three French departments of Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin and Moselle, and as early as July 1940, the borders from the..Read More

1942

1942 : Résistance, répression et ralliement

Résistance

Resistance, repression rallying En 1942 Despite a very harsh repression, the population of these two territories showed its attachment to France. People kept speaking French in the streets, in shops, at work. They sang the Marseillaise or the Internationale. The tricolour flag was covertly hoisted, people did graffiti on the..Read More

1942 : The Establishment of required military service

1942 - Service militaire obligatoire

The establishment of Required military service In 1942 After the introduction of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD, work service of the Reich, for young girls and boys) in April 1941, the population went through the dreaded establishment of a compulsory military service. The vast propaganda campaign, implemented by the Nazis to encourage..Read More

1943

1943 : Absolute war in Alsace Moselle

Guerre Totale

Absolute war In Alsace Moselle In 1943 The war took a turn when Paulus capitulated in Stalingrad on 2 February 1943. The great Reich was thrown into “Total War” and Alsace and Moselle too. In daily life, the rationing became stricter, requisitions and collections in favour of the front were..Read More

1945

1945 : Alsace-Moselle Contribution

Non à la ced

ALSACE MOSELLE CONTRIBUTION In 1945 Alsace and Moselle had not only been occupied but annexed by the Third Reich, therefore the war heavily affected them : 130,00 young men (called the “malgré-nous”) were forced to fight in the German army. 30,000 of them died or went missing. These martyred lands forged..Read More

1945 – 1949 : Consolidate peace

La paix

Consolidate peace From 1945 to 1949 Between 1945 and 1947, it was urgent to brought former war ennemies back together and consolidate peace efforts. The creation of NATO in 1949 strengthened the military cooperation between Americans and Europeans confronted with the massive presence of Soviet troops in the communist countries.Initiatives..Read More

End of the Second World War : Europe is in ruins

Libération - 1945

END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR EUROPE IS IN RUINS BEGINNING IN MARCH 1945… After Second World War, European industries were slowed down and its international power were reduced. There was a lack of confidence at an international level. The “Cold War” quickly followed the very violent conflict of 39-45...Read More

1950

1950-1954 : No to a European Army

Non à la ced

No to a European Army From 1950 to 1954 In 1950, the invasion of South Korea by communists’troops from the North brought about the fear of a confrontation between the two blocs on the European soil. In order to resist the soviet threat, the United States asked their allies to..Read More

1955

1950-1960 : Baby steps for Europe

L'Europe à petits pas de 1955 à 1960

BABY STEPS FOR EUROPE From 1955 to 1960 After the failure of the EDC, the six Member States of the ECSC met at the Messina Conference and affirmed, in June 1955, their intention “to go a step further towards the conscrution of Europe […] first at all […] in the..Read More

1960

1960-1988 : The great interior market

1960-1988 : The great interior market

The great interior market From 1960 to 1988 Two oil crises, in 1973 and 1979, undermined the European economies and caused unemployment, recession and de-industrialization. They revealed the rigidity of the structure and required the reform of the EEC. The election of the European Parliament through universal suffrage in 1979..Read More

1989

1989-1997 : The hopes of Eastern Europe

Espoirs de l'Europe de l'Est

The hopes of Eastern Europe From 1989 to 1997 The fall of the Berlin Wall stirred up hope among the former-soviet countries. There, the populations aspired to freedom, democracy and human rights. But the fall of Berlin Wall also revealed some concerns regarding the rebirth of a “Great Germany.” The..Read More

1998

1998-2009 : Single currency

Mise en place de la monnaie unique, l'Euro

Single Currency From 1998 to 2009 The common currency was adopted in May 1998. The governments committed to respecting the common rules intended to maintain monetary stability. Eleven countries fulfilled the requirements to join the Euro group.Euros entered into circulation through the ECB in Frankfurt on 1 January 2002. With..Read More

2010

2010 : The challenges

2010 : The challenges

Memorial Since 2010… Since 2008, crisis came one after another : The growing mistrust of public opinion, The increase in Greece’s debts, requiring the intervention of both the ECB and IMF; The “Arab Springs” and the War in Syria, which had led to a constant influx of refugees at the..Read More